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 Basic networking

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AuthorMessage




Join date : 1970-01-01

PostSubject: Basic networking   Wed 8 Jun - 14:28

TOOLS IN NETWORKING

1. UTP CABLE

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2. RJ-45

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3. CRIMPING TOOL




4. LAN TESTER




5. LAN CARD




6. HUB, SWITCH HUB




7. ROUTER




TYPES OF UTP CABLE PINOUT AND COLOR CODING

Straight Cable

You usually use straight cable to connect different type of devices.
This type of cable will be used most of the time and can be used to:

1) Connect a computer to a switch/hub's normal port.
2) Connect a computer to a cable/DSL modem's LAN port.
3) Connect a router's WAN port to a cable/DSL modem's LAN port.
4) Connect a router's LAN port to a switch/hub's uplink port. (normally used for expanding network)
5) Connect 2 switches/hubs with one of the switch/hub using an uplink port and the other one using normal port.

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Crossover Cable

Sometimes you will use crossover cable, it's usually used to connect same type of devices. A crossover cable can be used to:

1) Connect 2 computers directly.
2) Connect a router's LAN port to a switch/hub's normal port. (normally used for expanding network)
3) Connect 2 switches/hubs by using normal port in both switches/hubs.

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HOW TO CREATE ETHERNET CABLE

WATCH THIS:
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THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HUBS, SWITCHES AND ROUTERS

HUB

In a hub, a frame is passed along or "broadcast" to every one of its
ports. It doesn't matter that the frame is only destined for one port.
The hub has no way of distinguishing which port a frame should be sent
to. Passing it along to every port ensures that it will reach its
intended destination. This places a lot of traffic on the network and
can lead to poor network response times.
Additionally, a 10/100Mbps hub must share its bandwidth with each and
every one of its ports. So when only one PC is broadcasting, it will
have access to the maximum available bandwidth. If, however, multiple
PCs are broadcasting, then that bandwidth will need to be divided among
all of those systems, which will degrade performance.

SWITCH HUB

A switch, however, keeps a record of the MAC addresses of all the
devices connected to it. With this information, a switch can identify
which system is sitting on which port. So when a frame is received, it
knows exactly which port to send it to, without significantly increasing
network response times. And, unlike a hub, a 10/100Mbps switch will
allocate a full 10/100Mbps to each of its ports. So regardless of the
number of PCs transmitting, users will always have access to the maximum
amount of bandwidth. It's for these reasons why a switch is considered
to be a much better choice then a hub.

ROUTER

Routers are completely different devices. Where a hub or switch is
concerned with transmitting frames, a router's job, as its name implies,
is to route packets to other networks until that packet ultimately
reaches its destination. One of the key features of a packet is that it
not only contains data, but the destination address of where it's going.
A router is typically connected to at least two networks, commonly two
Local Area Networks (LANs) or Wide Area Networks (WAN) or a LAN and its
ISP's network . for example, your PC or workgroup and EarthLink. Routers
are located at gateways, the places where two or more networks connect.
Using headers and forwarding tables, routers determine the best path
for forwarding the packets. Router use protocols such as ICMP to
communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two
hosts.

Routers are also the only one of these devices that will allow you to share a single IP address among multiple network clients.

So, in short, a hub glues together an Ethernet network segment, a
switch can connect multiple Ethernet segments more efficiently and a
router can do those functions plus route TCP/IP packets between multiple
LANs and/or WANs; and much more of course.


SIMPLE DIAGRAM IN NETWORKING WITH INTERNET












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